IAM B

art collection

                                                 BUDDHA

 

 

Gilt Buddha; H. 25 cm; in research, ask for availability.


Nepal; Dharmachakra Mudra 'Wheel of Dharma' ?; hard stone; H29xW19xD19 cm              Buddha Preaching the First Sermon Attended by Maitreya and Padmapani

 

Brown jade Buddha; h. approx 35 cm; engraved: 'On the day of the 3rd month in the year ?st year during the Taihi goverment (477-499) faithfull Zhou Fang immortalize the Buddha as sacrif'

Gandhara Stucco Head of a Bodhisattva. Gypsum, stucco layered, stemming from  3-4th Century A.D., Greco/bactria Buddhism Artifact, Buddha Head from the Ancient Gandhara( Region). The item exhibits an early Buddha head in Hellenistic Bactria style.Lacking the ushnisha;H. 23 cm ; coarse gypsum/lime and various mixed material, very few air bubbles (not like modern gypsum); coated with a thin layer of stucco (?) that is  which layer has an another color. Just finished the restoration of the right lower part of the nose.

The Buddha keeping a moustage in some Gandandhara statues is natural, though the average Buddhist seldom comes across these srtefacts. The moustache draws the balance of the refine face. See National Museum of India, New Delhi. The statues of Buddha from Miran (Central Asia) having the Indianised moustache. Also, in China (Dun Huang). Ref. to Puri, B.N. 'Buddhism in Central Asia'5threprint 2015, Motial Barnarsidass, New Delhi, India


Specification to a Gandhara stucco head

Head is made from (coarse, mixed ) gypsum with a thin layer of stucco Reference is made and quoted from: A catalogue of the Gandhara sculpture in the British Museum; W. Zwalf; appendix 4:Technical examination and conservation of the stucco sculpture  by A.P. Middleton and Anna J. Gill.

Lit.: The silk road; vol. 15 2017; p. 107; Ulf Jäger..

Confirmed by Dr Nicolas Revire.

Reference to: "Boddhisatva from Shahbaz Garhi" Musee Guimet, France

The ancient civilization of Gandhara was located i the region encompassing modern northeaster Afghanistan and northwestern Pakistan. Situated at confluence of trading paths along the Silk Route, th area was flooded in diverse cultural influence ranging from Greece to China. Gandhara flourishe under the Kushan Dynasty and their great king,
Kanishka, who is traditionally given credit fo spreading the philosophies of Buddhism throughou central Asia and into China. This period is viewed a the most important era in the history of Buddhism.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great, th creation of Greco-Bactrian kingdoms, and the genera Hellenization of the subcontinent, Western aesthetic became prominent. Greek influence began permeatin into Gandhara. Soon sculptors based the images of th Buddha on Greco-Roman models, depicting Him as stocky and youthful Apollo, complete with stretche earlobes and loose monastic robes similar to a Roma toga. The extraordinary artistic creations of Gandhar reveal link between the different worlds of the Eas and West.
In the Buddhist religion, Bodhisattvas are souls wh have attained enlightenment and no longer need t reincarnate, but forsake nirvana and choose to com back in order to alleviate the suffering of others.
This stunning Gandharan stucco sculpture of the hea of a Bodhisattva reveals that these spiritual being were celebrated even then, as Buddhism began to sprea from India eastwards. This head was likely onc attached to a body, the whole of which probably stoo in a niche on the exterior of a stupa or shrine. These Bodhisattva sculptures are also thought to b depictions of Kushan kings and princes. Thei luxurious adornments, see here in the beaded hai ornament that covers his top knot, suggests thei wealth. The thin mustache is also typical of suc representations. The artists of Gandhara were th first to represent the Buddha in his human form, a opposed to a symbol such as his footprint. Thi gorgeous head is a reminder of an ancient civilizatio that, although vanished, helped spread the teaching of enlightenment throughout the heart of Asia.

 

Mon people  Buddhism; Jayavarman/KALA (Kirthimukha); sandstone(?) reliefsculpture  22x22 cm; 6th cent. 

The Mon (Mon: မန် or မည်; Burmese: မွန်လူမျိုး‌, pronounced [mʊ̀ɰ̃ lù mjó]; Khmer: មន, Thai: มอญ, pronounced [mɔ̄ːn] listen  (help·info)) are an ethnic group who inhabit Myanmar's Mon State, Bago Region, the Irrawaddy Delta, the southern Myanmar border with Thailand, and Thailand's Thon Buri District, Pakret District, Phra Pradaeng District and Lat Krabang District. The Mon were one of the earliest to reside in Southeast Asia, and were responsible for the spread of Theravada Buddhism in Mainland Southeast Asia. The civilisations founded by the Mon were some of the earliest in Thailand

Buddhism 'invaded' China via the Silk Road. Buddhist monks travelled with merchant caravans on the Silk Road to preach their new religion..

Alexander the Great established Hellenistic kingdoms (323 BC - 63 BC) and trade networks extending from the Mediterranean to Central Asia (furthest eastern point being Alexandria Eschate). The Greco-Bactrian Kingdoms (250 BC-125 BC) in Afghanistan and the later Indo-Greek Kingdoms (180 BC-10 CE) formed one of the first Silk Road stops after China for nearly 300 years. [ One of the descendant Greek kingdoms, the Dayuan (Ta-yuan; Chinese: 大宛; "Great Ionians"), were defeated by the Chinese in the Han-Dayuan warThe first documented translation efforts by Buddhist monks in China (all foreigners) were in the 2nd century CE, possibly as a consequence of the expansion of the Greco-Buddhist Kushan Empire into the Chinese territory of the Tarim Basin.

Extensive contacts however started in the 2nd century CE, probably as a consequence of the expansion of the Greco-Buddhist Kushan Empire into the Chinese territory of the Tarim Basin, with the missionary efforts of a great number of Central Asian Buddhist monks to Chinese lands. The first missionaries and translators of Buddhists scriptures into Chinese were either Parthian, Kushan, Sogdian or Kuchean.

Bodhidharma (440–528), the founder of the Chan (Zen) school of Buddhism, and the legendary originator of the physical training of the Shaolin monks that led to the creation of Shaolin kung fu. According to the earliest reference to him, by Yang Xuanzhi, he was a monk of Central Asian origin refers to Central Asia but may also include the Indian subcontinent, and was either a "Persian Central Asian"  or a "South Indian whom Yang Xuanshi met around 520 at Loyang. Throughout Buddhist art, Bodhidharma is depicted as a rather ill-tempered, profusely bearded and wide-eyed barbarian. He is referred to as "The Blue-Eyed Barbarian" (碧眼胡:Bìyǎn hú) in Chinese Chan texts

According to the principal Chinese sources, Bodhidharma came from the Western Regions,[ which refers to Central Asia but may also include the Indian subcontinent, and was either a "Persian Central Asian or a "South Indian [...] the third son of a great Indian king. Throughout Buddhist art, Bodhidharma is depicted as an ill-tempered, profusely-bearded, wide-eyed non-Chinese person. He is referred as "The Blue-Eyed Barbarian"

Reference in gold: Cham necklace depicting KALA (Kirthimukha) 10th-12th cent; Kala mask in Cham art intented to evoke fear and dispel evil.

According to tradition Bodhidharma was given this name by his teacher His name prior to monkhood is said to be Jayavarman. ( see: Khmer: ជ័យវរ្ម័នទី២ (Angkor Wat; Phnom Da): Jayavarman II/moustached hardstone sculpture, following:


 

Khmer: ជ័យវរ្ម័នទី២ ( Cambodja Angkor Wat; Phnom Da [temple] situated 70 kilometer south of Phnom Penh );Jayavarman II/moustached  wearing a mitter; Hard stone

9 th cent.

Height 20 cm   x Ø 10cm ;  Jayavarman II (approx. 770–850) founder and first king of the Kmer empire . Ruling 802-850 but could be possible 770 till 835; 9 cent. royals: Jajavarman 1, 2,3 & YasovarmanMoustached Buddha? Jayavarman II ??     

.references

  • Sak-Humphry, Chhany. The      Sdok Kak Thom Inscription. The Edition of the Buddhist Institute 2005.
  • Higham, Charles. The      Civilization of Angkor. University of California Press 2001.
  • Briggs, Lawrence Palmer. The      Ancient Khmer Empire. Transactions of the American Philosophical      Society 1951.
  • Mabbett, Ian en Chandler,      David. The Khmers. Blackwell Publishers Ltd. 1996.
  • Coedès, Georges. Les      capitales de Jayavarman II.. Bulletin de l'EFEO (Parijs), 28 (1928).
  • Wolters, O.W. Jayavarman      II.'s Military Power: The Territorial Foundation of the Angkor Empire.      Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Londen), 1973: 21-30.
  • Jacques, Claude en Lafond,      Philippe. The Khmer Empire: Cities and Sanctuaries from 5th to 13th      Century. River Books [2007].
  • Jacques, Claude. La carrière      de Jayavarman II., Bulletin de l'EFEO (Parijs), 59 (1972): 205-220.

Jacques, Claude. On Jayavarman II., the Founder of the Khmer Empire. Southeast Asian Archaeology 3 (1992): birth and death dates, Britannica.com, Retrieved 11-23-2010. Britannica.com. 2012-03-17.

 · Mabbett & Chandler, The Khmers p. 261  · Briggs, The Ancient Khmer Empire p. 83.

· Albanese, Marilia, The Treasures of Angkor. White Star, Italy (20

Bronze gilt Buddha; NOT Ming; 20th cent. inresearch

Guanyin in grotto and putuo island; wood, Kangxi; H. 48 cm gilt/polychrome

An unusual and charming votive image of carved wood depicting Guanyin seated in her grotto on Putuo Island with the secondary figures, the Dragon Maiden and Sudhana attending her on either side. Above a small grotto with the seated image of a Buddha and flanking it on both sides are the two popular companions from the Journey to the West (Xiyou ji), the monk Xuanzang(?), Sandy(?), Pigsy(?) and Monkey. In the water below a pair of nagas . On the back of the sculpture is a place for relics and donor documents. Kangxi , H 48 cm. Condition: Minor repair s and losses.

Kangxi (Hanzi:康熙, Mantsjoe: Aisin-Gioro Hiowan Yei) (Peking, 4 mei 1654 - aldaar, 20 december 1722)

 

 

Buddha; Birma Mandala; 19th cent. Bronze; H. 46 cm


 

Glass Buddha; Buddha: Shakyamuni=everything is illusion Boeddha weight 3361 gram; milky tranlucient glass

Attributed to: Loretta Hui-shan Yang Taipei / Shanghai

AKA:
  LIULIGONGFAN Founder and Art Director

Founder and Pioneer of   Contemporary Chinese LIULI art
  Former Honorary Professor at the Glass Art Studio at Tsinghua University
  Honorary Professor at Notojima Glass Art Museum in Ishikawa Prefecture
  Honorary Professor at Centre International du Verre et Arts Plastiques   (CIRVA) in Marseille, France
  Guest Instructor at The Studio at Corning Museum of Glass
  Founder of LIULI CHINA MUSEUM Shanghai
  Noted performing artisiin Taiwanese cinema
  Two-time recipient of the Best Actress Award at the Golden Horse Awards
  Best Actress Award recipient at the Asia Pacific Film Festival

Loretta H. Yang is the pioneering   artist behind contemporary Chinese liuli glass. She has devoted her life to   the art of liuli for close to three decades and in the process has revived   the ancient Chinese technique of glass casting and instigated the   contemporary glass art movement in Asia. Yang’s creative artistry was honed   during her work as an acclaimed actor in the 70s and 80s. A two time   recipient of the Best Actress Award at the Golden Horse Awards and Best   Actress Award recipient at the Asia Pacific Film Festival, she left the   industry at the height of her career to pursue the calling of contemporary   liuli art. Yang’s sculptures are imbued with a rich Chinese heritage and have   been acquired for the permanent collections of renowned museums including the   Victoria and Albert Museum in London, The Palace Museum at the Forbidden City   in Beijing and the New York Museum of Arts and Design in New York City.

Public   Collections 
  2007 Museum of Arts & Design, New York, USA 
  2007 Corning Museum of Glass, New York, USA
  2001 The Bowers Museum of Cultural Art, Los Angeles, USA 
  2000 Museo del Vidro, Monterrey, Mexico 
  2000 The Dunhuang Research Institute, Gansu, China 
  1999 Guanshanyue Arts Museum, Shenzhen, China
  1999 Guangdong Museum of Art, Guangzhou, China
  1998 Victoria & Albert Museum, London, UK 
  1997 The National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington D.C, USA
  1996 The Tsui Museum of Art, Hong Kong
  1995 Shanghai Art Museum, Shanghai, China
  1995 The Medicine Buddha Temple, Japan
  1993/1998   The Palace Museum, Beijing, China

Educational background / Professional Qualification: 
Founder and Art Director of Liuligongfang
Honorary Professor at the Glass Art Studio of Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
New York Experimental Glass Workshop
Foreign Language Department, Providence University, Taiwan

Awards:
2005  The winner of “Total Solution” award, Design for Asia Award (DFAA)
1984 / 1985   Twice winner of the award for best female leading actress
at the Golden Horse Awards Best Actress Prize at the Asia-Pacific Film Festival

“Loretta Hui-shan Yang's work proves that with a will there is a way. Within a thousand-year old Chinese culture, she discovered a unique means to speak to our souls and evoke a world of imagination.” 
—— Antoine Leperlier

Loretta Hui-shan Yang began her pursuit of contemporary Liuli art in 1987 and in the process revived China's art of “pate-de-verre”—— a technique that once flourished in 4 B.C. China. Over twenty years, Loretta Hui-shan Yang has used her individual artistic gifts and her acute powers of observation to create sculptured works in Liuli which are richly imbued with a traditional Chinese artistic vocabulary and human philosophy.

 

Buddha, bronze blackpatnated; Thai/India?  20th cent.

Buddha kwan yin

Kwan -Yin or Quan Yin Kuan Shih Yin: buddhist deity of compassion Song?: 960-1275

LIT.:

Kwan-Yin statues, also known as Quan Yin statues or Kuan Shih Yin, represent a Buddhist deity of compassion. This bodhisattva, per the Lotus Sutra, brings relief to those who are suffering and is able to transform into many different figures in order to best relate to a person.

Chinese Kwan-Yin statues are typically rendered as a woman holding a willow branch, carrying a vase of water, or with a lotus blossom. The willow branch represents healing of illnesses and the ability to bend but not break, while the water and lotus represent purity. Kwan-Yin is also often wearing or holding beads. These beads represent living beings, and the turning of these beads represent the rebirth of people into nirvana.

While Kwan-Yin appeared in Chinese history as early as 960 B.C., early forms of Kwan-Yin were almost exclusively male. However, during the Ming dynasty, Kwan-Yin took the form of a woman. There were several reasons for this adaptation – one being that compassion was considered a feminine characteristic.

Quick Facts

  • While the Chinese refer to this deity as      “Kwan-Yin”, the original name in Indian Buddhist culture is      Avalokitesavra. The common belief in China is that Kwan-Yin was first born      as the male Avalokitesavra and later reformed as a woman, Kwa-Yin
  • Kwan-Yin is often referred to as the Asian      Madonna as she is seen as a motherly figure to all people
  • Kwan-Yin statues are often portrayed with many      arms and many heads. This is to represent her desire to bring aid to many      people with her many arms, and to see all those who are in need with her      many eyes

 

The Making of Buddhist Wood Sculptures in China

By Guoying Stacy Zhang

Buddhistdoor Global | 2017-01-27 |

According to the Ekottara Agama Sutra (增一阿含經), the first Buddha image was made of wood. It is said that when the Buddha was teaching his deceased mother in the Trayastrimsa heaven, King Udayana of Vatsa in ancient India could not bear his absence and thus made a sandalwood image of the Buddha.

In China, wooden sculptures have been produced throughout the history of Buddhism. However, as the craft was mainly passed down orally among artisans, little is known about the wood species and construction techniques involved. In Japan, where wood is a more predominant and widely used material in sculpture, there have been systematic and scientific studies since the 1960s,* while in China similar work has not been conducted.

Beginning in 1985, largely prompted by conservation issues, Western museums and scientists published research analyses of more than 60 Chinese Buddhist wooden sculptures, dating from the Sui (581–618) to the Qing (1644–1911) dynasties. These sculptures are now housed in museum collections in Europe and North America, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Musée Guimet in Paris, the Musées royaux d'Art et d'Histoire in Brussels, the Museum für Ostasiatische Kunst in Cologne, the Museum Rietberg in Zurich, the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, the Royal Ontario Museum, the Spencer Museum of Art in Lawrence, Kansas, the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, and the Völkerkundemuseum in Munich.** 


Fig. 1. Statue of Guanyin, 117cm, willow, 1100–1200. Rijksmuseum. From 
rijksmuseum.nl

To investigate how Buddhist sculptures were made in China, I synthesized the abovementioned scientific studies, cross-referenced Buddhist and art historical literature, and observed specific objects in museum collections. It is by no means a comprehensive study, but it is still possible to illuminate some characteristics of the subject and clear away some misconceptions that have been held even among scholars.

Through microscopic identification, the following wood species were identified: willow (), poplar (杨树), limewood or linden (椴木), foxglove-tree (泡桐), juniper (刺柏), and sandalwood (檀香) at the genus level, and at the species level, Euphrates poplar () and Formosan sweetgum (枫香树). As indicated in the table below (Fig. 2), during each period, various species of wood were used; most wood species were used continuously throughout history. There does not seem to be a pattern as is the case in Japan, where certain types of wood became dominant in a specific period.

 

Buddha, dry-lacquer over wood; H. 25cm; polychromed; Pigmented,  dry lacquer. NARA period. polychromed; Pigmented,  dry lacquer. NARA period;This Nara period wooden statue vividly represent both Ganjin's gentle personality and his indomitable willpower.
PersonalBornChunyu
Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China
Died763 (aged 74–75)
Tōshōdai-ji, Nara Prefecture, Japan
ReligionBuddhismNationalityChineseSchoolRisshūLineage3rd generationDharma namesJianzhenTempleDaming Temple
;wood-core kanshitsu (mokushin), in which a hemp-cloth coating is applied over a core carved of wood.

Lit.: The walters Chinese wood and lacquer buddha; a tecnical study; Donna K. Strahan;

In research:Reference scculpture, approx. 1090;  Honolulu museum

A technical study was performed on a significant early life-size wood-core dry-lacquer Chinese Buddha to determine the date and method of its manufacture. The techniques used to study the image include x-radiography, radiocarbon dating, microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, and x-ray diffraction. The analysis revealed the sculpture to be constructed of a multi-piece wood core, covered with two lacquer-impregnated layers of cloth, five bone-bulked lacquer layers, and at least six sequential layers of painted design.

Moran, Sherwood F. “Ashura, a Dry-Lacquer Statue of the Nara Period.” Artibus Asiae, vol. 27, no. 1/2, 1964, pp. 99–133.

References: Quote/unquote from:Portraits of Chogen, The tranformation of Buddhist art in early medieval japan. By John M. Rosenfield, Brill, Leiden, 2010 (Volume 1 in series of books about Japanese Visual Culture edited by John Carpenter) 296 pages including appendices, notes, bibliography and index, copious illustrations in colour and black and white, ISBN 9789004168640

Seated Ganjinwajo Statue
National Treasure
Nara period, 8th Century
Hollow-core dry-lacquer figure with colored decoration
Height 80.1 cm

Professor Rosenfield in his account of the development of portrait sculpture in Japan shows that while portraits of Chōgen were particularly fine examples of Japanese realism there was a long tradition of depicting prominent persons especially holy men.  The oldest extant image in East Asia is that of the Chinese monk Ganjin鑑真 in Tōshōdaiji 唐招提寺 in Nara. Rosenfield describes this statue as “rather artless and straightforward” in comparison with the much later portraits of Chōgen. UNQUOTE.

 India/Tibet bronze buddha matrix; H 8 cm.

Birma, paper mache; H 45 cm'; gilt; in research



 

Thai; wood Buddha

Pala Buddha.

H.26 x W 25 xD7 cm

Black fragment of a stéle wit lotus sitting Buddha sakyamuni (East India, Pala dynasty 10th cent). One in blackstone (Phyllite) made carved/hacked stéle.  Pala period; north-east India 8-13th cent.


references/provenance:

 






 



Standing Amida(bha);

Presumeably Edo period (19th cent.)

Not by Eisen (??) (1239-unknown), Kamakura period (??) 1185-1333; dated 1259 (Shoka 3), 13 th cent.(?) wood with polychromy -gilt; Lacking : 頭光 [ずこう]  wirerays nimbus/halo:(see hole on backside first layer); 2nd round layer inside copper gilt small plate.

Amitabha, the Buddha of boundless light Place made

Kamakura, Kanto, Kanagawa-ken prefecture, Japan Materials & Technique

sculpture, wood, , gold,carving, gilding Dimensions50 h x 16 w x 14d cm.In Research

Regarded as one of the most compassionate figures in Buddhism, Amida (Amitabha), Buddha of Infinite Light, was a popular saviour figure in the Kamakura period and is the principal deity of the Pure Land Buddhist sect in Japan. Followers believe that faith in Amida, as well as contemplating his image and chanting his name, will enable rebirth in the lush Pure Land of the Western Paradise. In an earlier mythical life as a monk, Amida vowed that if he attained enlightenment he would dedicate himself to the salvation of all beings from the suffering of the cycle of birth and rebirth.

Shown in this sculpture with his hands welcoming souls to the Pure Land, Amida exhibits the physical attributes of greatness established in India centuries earlier. These include the cranial bump (ushnisha) indicating wisdom, and the circular mark (urna), here a jewel, between his eyes. Looking down in compassion, He stands on a lotus base, a symbol of particular significance in Pure Land Buddhism where souls are believed to be reborn into the Western Paradise from the centre of a lotus blossom.

The sculpture was carved from separate pieces of wood that were joined and  (use to be) covered with layers of cloth and lacquer before being gilded. Amida’s  (traces of gold) golden robes signify the Buddha’s luminous benevolence.

[National treasure, Amida Buddha Temple] chūson-JI (Iwate Prefecture), byodoin Temple, ninna-ji Temple, Qing-ji Temple, 3000  hospital, dharmadhatu Temple and kōryū-ji Temple (over Kyoto), Horyu-ji Temple (Nara Prefecture), jodoji (Hyogo Prefecture)  

 

another one in shrine; H +/- 45 cm; +/- 1800; complete with aureol.  *

  Reference Abidabah statue approx. 13th cent., left

 A shrine a small one can easily  be as small as 15cm or even smaller. These are mostly used in private houses. In open temples figures are usually not presented that way but just stand or sit there in the room. They are much bigger.
Usually, with wooden objects, we look at the back or bottom of wooden objects, where there is no painting for age. I do not know what wood types are/were used in Japanese figures, but they seem to be frequently soft wood, like the wood from needle trees, etc.  They are probably less apt to decay in Japan due to the mild, dry climate.While in Japan there're many figures in temples; most were made of bronze, some of stone. Some were well over a thousand years old. But I doubt wooden figures like the ones in our images would reach that age without repeated re-painting over the years, or without showing some decay. Those restoring them will see if there are repairs.
The black tint on the figures comes usually from incense smoke. You can therefore tell sometimes if an item has been in use for a long time by this.

The figure on the left is older (C14) , just judging by the appearance, but without looking at the bottom it is difficult to be sure. The gilt and brownish color used for the skin also provide some age related indication. That is why I think the one on the right is not that old. But, it could also have been repainted later, thus looking newer.

*'in shrine'   cannot read the handwriting, only one or two characters. They seem to be all Kanji (Chinese characters) no Kana (Japanese characters) visible. They usually write them mixed, but sometimes there are just no Kana characters.


Mon; Buddhism

Mon people  Buddhism; sandstone(?) reliefsculpture  22x22 cm; 6th cent.

Buddhism 'invaded' China via the Silk Road. Buddhist monks travelled with merchant caravans on the Silk Road to preach their new religion..

Alexander the Great established Hellenistic kingdoms (323 BC - 63 BC) and trade networks extending from the Mediterranean to Central Asia (furthest eastern point being Alexandria Eschate). The Greco-Bactrian Kingdoms (250 BC-125 BC) in Afghanistan and the later Indo-Greek Kingdoms (180 BC-10 CE) formed one of the first Silk Road stops after China for nearly 300 years. [ One of the descendant Greek kingdoms, the Dayuan (Ta-yuan; Chinese: 大宛; "Great Ionians"), were defeated by the Chinese in the Han-Dayuan warThe first documented translation efforts by Buddhist monks in China (all foreigners) were in the 2nd century CE, possibly as a consequence of the expansion of the Greco-Buddhist Kushan Empire into the Chinese territory of the Tarim Basin.

Extensive contacts however started in the 2nd century CE, probably as a consequence of the expansion of the Greco-Buddhist Kushan Empire into the Chinese territory of the Tarim Basin, with the missionary efforts of a great number of Central Asian Buddhist monks to Chinese lands. The first missionaries and translators of Buddhists scriptures into Chinese were either Parthian, Kushan, Sogdian or Kuchean.

Bodhidharma (440–528), the founder of the Chan (Zen) school of Buddhism, and the legendary originator of the physical training of the Shaolin monks that led to the creation of Shaolin kung fu. According to the earliest reference to him, by Yang Xuanzhi, he was a monk of Central Asian origin refers to Central Asia but may also include the Indian subcontinent, and was either a "Persian Central Asian"  or a "South Indian whom Yang Xuanshi met around 520 at Loyang. Throughout Buddhist art, Bodhidharma is depicted as a rather ill-tempered, profusely bearded and wide-eyed barbarian. He is referred to as "The Blue-Eyed Barbarian" (碧眼胡:Bìyǎn hú) in Chinese Chan texts         

According to the principal Chinese sources, Bodhidharma came from the Western Regions,[4][5] which refers to Central Asia but may also include the Indian subcontinent, and was either a "Persian Central Asian or a "South Indian [...] the third son of a great Indian king. Throughout Buddhist art, Bodhidharma is depicted as an ill-tempered, profusely-bearded, wide-eyed non-Chinese person. He is referred as "The Blue-Eyed Barbarian"

According to tradition Bodhidharma was given this name by his teacher His name prior to monkhood is said to be Jayavarman. ( see: Khmer: ជ័យវរ្ម័នទី២ (Angkor Wat; Phnom Da): Jayavarman II/moustached hardstone sculpture)


Bronze Buddha in research